看完《敦克尔克》,我想起的是这位史上最会说话的英国首相

摘要: 语言的力量。


被网友奉为诺神的英国导演诺兰(Christopher Nolan)的新片《敦刻尔克》(Dunkirk)终于在国内上映了。



可以说,这部电影用前所未有的方式,让我们身临其境地体验了一次在战争中逃亡的惊险和刺激。



极其真实的溺水感、晕眩感、紧张感、恐惧感……



让人全程攥紧了座椅扶手。据说有小伙伴甚至在电影院里吐出来了……



但很多人或许也被片尾士兵朗读的一段丘吉尔演讲感动到了。



电影结尾,九死一生逃回英格兰的士兵打开当天的报纸,以为会读到全国人民的鄙夷和唾弃,谁知头版竟是丘吉尔在下议院(House of Commons)振奋人心的讲话。


士兵看到的报纸:1940年6月5日《每日镜报》头版:“We Never Surrender”(我们诀不投降)


在那个灾难般的1940年,40万英法联军被德军包围在敦刻尔克的海滩。背水一战的英国发起“发电机行动”(Operation Dynamo),通过海路撤退困在敦刻尔克的盟军。


敦刻尔克海滩上等待撤退的盟军


原先只计划撤出4.5万人,而从5月26日到6月4日的一周时间内,成百上千的英国民众开着自家的小船和海军一起加入救援,竟奇迹般地撤回33.8万人。


这场大逃亡,俨然成了一场意外的胜利。


普通民众开着商船来接士兵回家


丘吉尔6月4日在下议院通报了这次行动的结果。这次讲话也成为了丘吉尔最为著名的演讲之一,后来被命名为“We shall fight on the beaches”演讲。



诺兰让一个普通士兵念出了丘吉尔当年曾鼓舞了整个英国的话语:



Even though large tracts of Europe and many old and famous States have fallen or may fall into the grip of the Gestapo and all the odious apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not flag or fail. 

尽管欧洲的广阔土地和众多古老文明的邦国已经或可能陷入盖世太保和可憎的纳粹统治的魔掌之下,我们也决不妥协、决不放弃。


We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be.

我们将战斗到底。我们将在法国作战,我们将在海洋中作战,我们将以越来越坚定的信心和越来越强大的力量在空中作战,我们将保卫我们的家园,无论付出多大代价。


We shall fight on the beaches; we shall fight on the landing grounds; we shall fight in the fields and in the streets; we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender!

我们要在滩头作战,在登陆地作战,在田野、在街头、在山上作战,我们决不投降!



这种手法,斯皮尔伯格在《林肯》也曾用过,即著名的《葛底斯堡演说》,是让普通士兵背诵出来的。这仿佛是在说,历史是成千上万的无名小卒创造的。


不过,我们今天还是来听听丘吉尔的历史声音吧,以下是演讲录音片段:



这一席演讲有着破釜沉舟的悲壮感,据当时的保守党议员Henry Channon称,有好些工党成员当场听哭。他写道:


Churchill was ‘eloquent and oratorical, and used magnificent English … several Labour Members cried’.

丘吉尔这一席演讲“雄辩有力、激扬澎湃、字字玑珠,好几位工党成员听得泪流满面。”


丘吉尔在演讲中描述整个撤退的过程,惊心动魄的程度不亚于电影:


The Royal Navy, with the willing help of countless merchant seamen, strained every nerve to embark the British and Allied troops; 220 light warships and 650 other vessels were engaged.

在数不清的商用船只的热心帮助下,皇家海军竭尽全力帮助英军和盟军撤退,期间共使用轻型军舰220艘、其他船只650艘。



They had to operate upon the difficult coast, often in adverse weather, under an almost ceaseless hail of bombs and an increasing concentration of artillery fire. Nor were the seas, as I have said, themselves free from mines and torpedoes.

他们在艰难的海岸行动,通常要克服恶劣天气,冒着炸弹不间断的狂轰滥炸和越来越集中的炮火扫射。而且我也说过了,海中还隐藏着大量的地雷和鱼雷。



It was in conditions such as these that our men carried on, with little or no rest, for days and nights on end, making trip after trip across the dangerous waters, bringing with them always men whom they had rescued. The numbers they have brought back are the measure of their devotion and their courage.

正是在这种情况下,我们的战士勇往直前,不眠不休,夜以继日,一趟趟地往来于这片危险丛生的海域,带回一批批营救回来的士兵。他们带回来的人数是他们的奉献和勇气的最佳衡量。



他称这场逃亡是个奇迹:


A miracle of deliverance, achieved by valor, by perseverance, by perfect discipline, by faultless service, by resource, by skill, by unconquerable fidelity, is manifest to us all.

这场大撤退对我们所有人来说都是个奇迹。它是靠勇气、毅力、严格的纪律以及准确无误的执行达成的;它是靠资源、技能和不可战胜的忠诚实现的。



但同时,他也提醒人们,成功的撤退不等于胜利。


We must be very careful not to assign to this deliverance the attributes of a victory. Wars are not won by evacuations. 

我们必须非常慎重,不要把这次援救说成是胜利。战争不是靠撤退赢得的。


后来,有历史学家认为,敦刻尔克之所以成为一个二战期间凝聚英国民心的事件,并在最艰难的时期坚定了全国上下抗击纳粹德国的决心,很大程度上都因为丘吉尔这篇充满感染力的演讲



这也是丘吉尔公众形象的一个重要里程碑。从此,他在公众当中树立起一个坚强不屈的战时国家领导人的形象。


Winston Churchill is best remembered as the British prime minister whose speeches rallied a nation under a relentless Nazi onslaught in World War II. 

温斯顿·丘吉尔最深入人心的形象,就是那位当英国在二战中惨遭纳粹残酷蹂躏时,用演讲将整个国家凝聚在一起的英国首相。


面对着大本钟的丘吉尔雕像


他的演讲中经典语录层出不穷,读来荡气回肠,例如他同样著名的二战演讲 《热血、辛劳、汗水和眼泪》("Blood, toil, tears, and sweat")。


那是1940年5月13日,德国入侵法国的第三天,丘吉尔发表了自己当上首相后的第一次演讲。


以下摘录最经典的片段:



I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined this Government: I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. 

我向议会表明,一如我向内阁大臣们所表明的,我所能奉献的,唯有热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水。


We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering.

摆在我们面前的,是一场极为严峻的考验。摆在我们面前的,是旷日持久的斗争和苦难的岁月。


You ask, what is our policy? I will say: It is to wage war, by sea, land, and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.

你问我,我们的政策是什么?我的回答是:在陆上、海上、空中作战。尽我们的全力,尽上帝赋予我们的全部力量去作战,同一个在人类黑暗悲惨的罪恶史上前所未有的空前凶残的暴政斗争。这就是我们的政策。


You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: It is victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is no survival.

你问我:我们的目标是什么?我可以用一个词来回答:胜利——不惜一切代价,去赢得胜利;不惧一切恐怖,去赢得胜利;无论前路多么漫长、多么艰难,也要赢得胜利。因为没有胜利就无法生存。




1940年6月18,法国沦陷,英国笼罩在恐惧中,丘吉尔再一次发表演讲。这本是一个黑暗的时刻,而他却说出了这样的话:


"Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duty, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, This was their finest hour. "

那么就让我们振作精神,承担起自己的责任来,让我们干出名堂来。倘若大英帝国和它的联邦能留存千年,到那时人们还会说,“这是他们最光辉的时刻”



美国前总统肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)曾这样评价丘吉尔的战时演讲:


"In the dark days and darker nights when England stood alone — and most men save Englishmen despaired of Englands life — he mobilized the English language and sent it into battle."

在那些极度黑暗的日日夜夜,英格兰孤身奋战着。除了英国人外,大多数人都已对英格兰绝望,而他却把英语语言动员起来,将其作为战斗武器,投入战场


是的,一篇热血演讲的武力值不容小觑。



丘吉尔的演讲为何如此有力?写过《战争风暴》(The Storm of War)的作者Andrew Roberts这样总结丘吉尔的用词特点:


"Winston Churchill managed to combine the most magnificent use of English — usually short words, Anglo-Saxon words, Shakespearean. And also this incredibly powerful delivery.”

温斯顿·丘吉尔将英语中最华丽的表达都结合起来了:简短的词语、盎格鲁-撒克逊词汇和莎士比亚式的语言,还有他无与伦比的充满力度的演说。


“And he did it at a time when the world was in such peril from Nazism, that every word mattered."

在那个纳粹主义肆虐的时代,他发表出这样的演讲,每个词都有千钧重



也许你还不知道,丘吉尔是得过诺贝尔文学奖的,而他的演讲都是自己写的


Churchill wrote every word of his many speeches — he said he spent an hour working on every minute of a speech he made

丘吉尔的很多篇演讲都是他一个字一个字写出来的。他说过,他每一分钟的演讲都要花一个小时来打磨


丘吉尔会在演讲稿上做各种标记,如在句子中加入空格符号,提醒自己停顿。


但丘吉尔并不是天生的演说家。他小时候口齿不清(lisp),经过长期的练习才克服这个问题。


但他很早就认识到文字的力量。23岁时就已经写过一篇文章《修辞学的支架》("The Scaffolding of Rhetoric"),阐述构成有力演讲的要素。他写道:


"The climax of oratory is reached by a rapid succession of waves of sound and vivid pictures."

演讲的高潮是通过一波又一波快速、连续的声音和生动的画面感达到的。



丘吉尔在文章中这样总结优秀演讲的几个元素,快搬小板凳来学习:


? 措辞准确(correctness of diction)


It’s best the speaker use “short, homely words of common usage so long as such words can fully express their thoughts and feelings.”

演讲者最好使用“短小、朴实、常用的词汇和表达,只要这些文字可以充分表达他们的思想和情感就达到目的。”


? 节奏(rhythm)


Rhythm, or a cadence that more resembles blank verse than prose. In other words, he’s reminding us we must write for the ear, not the eye. 

注重节奏,或者说一种韵律,类似于无韵诗而非散文的韵律。也就是说,丘吉尔在提醒我们,我们的文字要为耳朵而写,而非眼睛。


? 一波接一波的论据(argument)


The accumulation of argument, via a series of facts pointing in a common direction, coupled with “waves of sound and vivid pictures.”

用一系列指向同一观点的事实作为不断累加的论据,同时配上“气势磅礴的声浪和生动的画面感”。


? 类比(analogy)


The use of analogy which “leads to conviction rather than to proof” and has an electrifying effect on an audience.

使用类比要能够“引导出有说服力的论断而不仅仅是用来证明”,要让观众有触电般的兴奋之感。


看过高手的经验分享,是不是有些不明觉厉?

丘吉尔作为演说家的形象太著名了,很多影视作品中涉及到丘吉尔都少不了他演讲的桥段。



比如去年大热的《王冠》(The Crown),演到乔治六世病逝,在肯尼亚访问的伊丽莎白公主赶回英国继承王位时,电视剧就用了丘吉尔的悼词贯穿整个过程。


来看看这个非常精彩的片段:



丘吉尔的文字悲怆而庄严,承载着一段波澜壮阔的历史的厚重感。


我们节选部分来欣赏:



When the death of the King was announced to us yesterday morning there struck a deep and solemn note in our lives which, as it resounded far and wide, stilled the clatter and traffic of twentieth-century life in many lands, and made countless millions of human beings pause and look around them.

当昨天早上国王驾崩的消息公布时,我们陷入了沉重的悲痛中,刻骨铭心。20世纪的喧嚣嘈杂,瞬间归于沉寂,举世众生停下脚步,四顾茫然,深感震惊。


Now I must leave the treasures of the past and turn to the future. Famous have been the reigns of our queens. Some of the greatest periods in our history have unfolded under their sceptre. 

现在,我必须铭记历史,展望未来。我国女王的统治名垂史册,历史上,我们在她们的统治下,走向鼎盛。


I, whose youth was passed in the august, unchallenged and tranquil glories of the Victorian era, may well feel a thrill in invoking once more the prayer and the anthem, "God save the Queen!"

我曾在维多利亚时代度过我的青年岁月,那是一个令人敬畏且无可争议的辉煌安宁的时代,如今我为能再次唱响这句颂词而热血沸腾:“天佑女王!”



感受到了吧,这就是语言的力量。


编辑:左卓

实习编辑:李雪晴

实习生:许凤琪





推荐阅读


歪果仁经常念错的20个单词,你能念对几个?来挑战一下!


他曾是英语最好的中国人,就是他把“humor”翻作“幽默”



首页 - 中国日报双语新闻 的更多文章: